Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are major transformation products of PBDEs that readily bioaccumulate in the marine food web. Although 6-OH-BDE-47 is frequently and abundantly detected in cetaceans, its potential toxic effects are largely unknown. We explored the toxicological pathways and mechanisms of OH-BDEs by exposing pygmy killer whale skin fibroblast cell lines (PKW-LWHT) to 6-OH-BDE-47 at concentrations ranging from 0.02, 0.2, 2 to 4 μM. The result showed that 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The cell cycle data revealed that the cell cycle was arrest at the G0/G1 phase by 6-OH-BDE-47. Using qPCR and Western blot assay, we found that 6-OH-BDE-47 up-regulated the transcription and expression level of p21 and RB1 and down-regulated the expression level of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E2, E2F1, and E2F3 and the cellular phosphorylated RB1. The results showed that 6-OH-BDE-47 was able to arrest the cell cycle of PKW-LWHT cells at G1 phase by changing the expression level of related regulatory genes in G1 stage, and finally inhibit cell proliferation.