A comparison of illusory superiority in elite and county UK soccer referees

Melissa Fothergill*, Sandy Wolfson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Soccer referees are regularly the object of intense scrutiny and criticism by players, coaches, fans and the media. The extent to which they characterise themselves positively despite negative feedback was examined in a study where elite (N=11) and county (N=183) soccer referees compared themselves with other referees officiating at their level. Participants completed a questionnaire containing items pertaining to their positive and negative characteristics. Both elite and county referees, irrespective of their level, regarded themselves as superior to other referees. Compared with county referees, elite referees were particularly likely to rate themselves favourably on negative characteristics and susceptibility to influence, but not on positive qualities. These results provide a novel insight into referees’ perceptions of themselves and their fellow referees and suggest that self-aggrandizement may be a functional cognitive illusion that can help maintain confidence and resilience in the face of threats to their expertise.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429-440
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Psychology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2015


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