A First-Principles Thermodynamic Model for the Ba–Zr–S System in Equilibrium with Sulfur Vapor

Lucy Whalley*, Prakriti Kayastha, Giulia Longo

*Corresponding author for this work

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The chalcogenide perovskite BaZrS3 has strong visible light absorption and high chemical stability, is nontoxic, and is made from earth-abundant elements. As such, it is a promising candidate material for application in optoelectronic technologies. However, the synthesis of BaZrS3 thin-films for characterization and device integration remains a challenge. Here, we use density functional theory and lattice dynamics to calculate the vibrational properties of elemental, binary, and ternary materials in the Ba–Zr–S system. This is used to build a thermodynamic model for the stability of BaZrS3, BaSx, and ZrSx in equilibrium with sulfur gas across a range of temperatures and sulfur partial pressures. We highlight that reaction thermodynamics are highly sensitive to sulfur allotropes and the extent of allotrope mixing. We use our model to predict the synthesis conditions in which BaZrS3 and the intermediate binary compounds can form. At a moderate temperature of 500 °C, we find that BaS3, associated with fast reaction kinetics, is stable at pressures above 3 × 105 Pa. We also find that BaZrS3 is stable against decomposition into sulfur-rich binaries up to at least 1 × 107 Pa. Our work provides insights into the chemistry of this promising material and suggests the experimental conditions required for the successful synthesis of BaZrS3.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Early online date5 Apr 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Apr 2024

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