A large-scale transcontinental river system crossed West Antarctica during the Eocene

Maximilian Zundel, Cornelia Spiegel*, Chris Mark, Ian L. Millar, David Chew, Johann Klages, Karsten Gohl, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Yani Najman, Ulrich Salzmann, Werner Ehrmann, Jürgen Titschack, Thorsten Bauersachs, Gabriele Uenzelmann-Neben, Torsten Bickert, Juliane Müller, Robert Larter, Frank Lisker, Steven Bohaty, Gerhard Kuhnthe Science Team of Expedition PS104

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Extensive ice coverage largely prevents investigations of Antarctica’s unglaciated past. Knowledge about environmental and tectonic development before large-scale glaciation, however, is important for understanding the transition into the modern icehouse world. We report geochronological and sedimentological data from a drill core from the Amundsen Sea shelf, providing insights into tectonic and topographic conditions during the Eocene (~44 to 34 million years ago), shortly before major ice sheet buildup. Our findings reveal the Eocene as a transition period from >40 million years of relative tectonic quiescence toward reactivation of the West Antarctic Rift System, coinciding with incipient volcanism, rise of the Transantarctic Mountains, and renewed sedimentation under temperate climate conditions. The recovered sediments were deposited in a coastal-estuarine swamp environment at the outlet of a >1500-km-long transcontinental river system, draining from the rising Transantarctic Mountains into the Amundsen Sea. Much of West Antarctica hence lied above sea level, but low topographic relief combined with low elevation inhibited widespread ice sheet formation.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbereadn6056
Number of pages16
JournalScience Advances
Volume10
Issue number23
Early online date5 Jun 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jun 2024

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