A multi-sensor wearable system for the assessment of diseased gait in real-world conditions

Mobilise-D consortium, Francesca Salis*, Stefano Bertuletti, Tecla Bonci, Marco Caruso, Kirsty Scott, Lisa Alcock, Ellen Buckley, Eran Gazit, Clint Hansen, Lars Schwickert, Kamiar Aminian, Clemens Becker, Philip Brown, Anne-Elie Carsin, Brian Caulfield, Lorenzo Chiari, Ilaria D’Ascanio, Silvia Del Din, Bjoern M. EskofierJudith Garcia-Aymerich, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Emily C. Hume, Cameron Kirk, Felix Kluge, Sarah Koch, Arne Kuederle, Walter Maetzler, Encarna M. Micó-Amigo, Arne Mueller, Isabel Neatrour, Anisoara Paraschiv-Ionescu, Luca Palmerini, Alison J. Yarnall, Lynn Rochester, Basil Sharrack, David Singleton, Beatrix Vereijken, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Ugo Della Croce, Claudia Mazzà, Andrea Cereatti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Introduction: Accurately assessing people’s gait, especially in real-world conditions and in case of impaired mobility, is still a challenge due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors resulting in gait complexity. To improve the estimation of gait-related digital mobility outcomes (DMOs) in real-world scenarios, this study presents a wearable multi-sensor system (INDIP), integrating complementary sensing approaches (two plantar pressure insoles, three inertial units and two distance sensors).

Methods: The INDIP technical validity was assessed against stereophotogrammetry during a laboratory experimental protocol comprising structured tests (including continuous curvilinear and rectilinear walking and steps) and a simulation of daily-life activities (including intermittent gait and short walking bouts). To evaluate its performance on various gait patterns, data were collected on 128 participants from seven cohorts: healthy young and older adults, patients with Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and proximal femur fracture. Moreover, INDIP usability was evaluated by recording 2.5-h of real-world unsupervised activity.

Results and discussion: Excellent absolute agreement (ICC >0.95) and very limited mean absolute errors were observed for all cohorts and digital mobility outcomes (cadence ≤0.61 steps/min, stride length ≤0.02 m, walking speed ≤0.02 m/s) in the structured tests. Larger, but limited, errors were observed during the daily-life simulation (cadence 2.72–4.87 steps/min, stride length 0.04–0.06 m, walking speed 0.03–0.05 m/s). Neither major technical nor usability issues were declared during the 2.5-h acquisitions. Therefore, the INDIP system can be considered a valid and feasible solution to collect reference data for analyzing gait in real-world conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1143248
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2023

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