Rodent models have been described to investigate lung preservation and reperfusion injury but have significant disadvantages. In large animals single lung transplant studies are probably optimal but problems remain over the ability to rigorously separate the lungs for assessment while promoting medium to long-term animal survival for meaningful investigation. Our aim was to develop a novel and refined large animal model to assess reperfusion injury in the transplanted lung, overcoming the difficulties associated with existing models. Specifically, small animal models of lung transplantation usually have short perfusion times (often one hour) and include extracorporeal circuits while larger animal models often require the contralateral lung to be excluded after transplantation-an unphysiological situation under which to evaluate the graft. A porcine model of left lung allotransplantation was developed in which native and donor lungs are individually ventilated. Sampling catheters placed within the graft lung allowed specimen withdrawal without mixing of blood from the contralateral lung after reimplantation. The model permits a variety of clinical scenarios to be simulated with the native lung supporting the animal irrespective of function in the graft. This model has been used in over 60 transplant procedures with a postoperative survival time of 12 h being readily achieved. The mean operating time was 2.6 h. The mortality rate is 4% in our series. We have found the model to be reliable, reproducible and flexible. We propose this model as an adaptable investigation for evaluating lung reperfusion injury and preservation.