This paper presents a nonlocal sinusoidal shear deformation beam theory for the bending, buckling, and vibration of nanobeams. The present model is capable of capturing both small scale effect and transverse shear deformation effects of nanobeams, and does not require shear correction factors. Based on the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen, the equations of motion as well as the boundary conditions of the beam are derived using Hamilton’s principle. Analytical solutions for the deflection, buckling load, and natural frequency are presented for a simply supported beam, and the obtained results are compared with those predicted by the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory. The comparison firmly establishes that the present beam theory can accurately predict the bending, buckling, and vibration responses of short nanobeams where the small scale and transverse shear deformation effects are significant.