A prospective study of MRI biomarkers in the brain and lower limb muscles for prediction of lower limb motor recovery following stroke

Mat Elameer*, Hannah Lumley, Sarah A. Moore, Katie Marshall, Abi Alton, Fiona E. Smith, Akif Gani, Andrew Blamire, Helen Rodgers, Christopher I. M. Price, Dipayan Mitra*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The aim of this prospective observational longitudinal study was to explore and decipher the predictive value of prospective MRI biomarkers in the brain and lower limb muscles for 3-month lower limb motor recovery following stroke. In the brain, we measured the integrity of the corticospinal tract (fractional anisotropy/“FA”). In the muscles, we measured volume, fatty replacement (fat fraction analysis and proton spectroscopy) and oedema. Measurements were taken at two time points: (1) within 4 weeks of stroke (baseline measurement, clinical and imaging) and (2) 3 months following stroke (follow up measurement, clinical only). Clinical measurements consisted of assessments of functional ability and strength (Fugl-Meyer score, motor NIHSS, Functional Ambulation Category/“FAC”, and muscle dynamometry). Twenty-three patients completed imaging and clinical assessments at baseline and follow-up; five patients had partial imaging assessment. The results provided some evidence that damage to the corticospinal tract would result in less motor recovery: recovery of the Fugl-Meyer score and dynamometric ankle plantarflexion, ankle dorsiflexion, and knee extension correlated positively and significantly with fractional anisotropy (0.406–0.457; p = 0.034—p = 0.016). However, fractional anisotropy demonstrated a negative correlation with recovery of the Functional Ambulation Category (−0.359, p = 0.046). For the muscle imaging, significant inverse correlation was observed between vastus lateralis fat fraction vs. NIHSS recovery (−0.401, p = 0.04), and a strong positive correlation was observed between ratio of intra- to extra-myocellular lipid concentrations and the recovery of knee flexion (0.709, p = 0.007). This study supports previous literature indicating a positive correlation between the integrity of the corticospinal tract and motor recovery post-stroke, expanding the limited available literature describing this relationship specifically for the lower limb. However, recovery of functional ambulation behaved differently to other clinical recovery markers by demonstrating an inverse relationship with corticospinal tract integrity. The study also introduces some muscle imaging biomarkers as potentially valuable in the prediction of 3-month lower limb motor recovery following stroke.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1229681
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Oct 2023

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