With the rapid growth of video resources, techniques for efficient organization of video clips are becoming appealing in the multimedia domain. In this article, a sketch-based approach is proposed to intuitively organize video clips by: (1) enhancing their narrations using sketch annotations and (2) structurizing the organization process by gesture-based free-form sketching on touch devices. There are two main contributions of this work. The first is a sketch graph, a novel representation for the narrative structure of video clips to facilitate content organization. The second is a method to perform context-aware sketch recommendation scalable to large video collections, enabling common users to easily organize sketch annotations. A prototype system integrating the proposed approach was evaluated on the basis of five different aspects concerning its performance and usability. Two sketch searching experiments showed that the proposed context-aware sketch recommendation outperforms, in terms of accuracy and scalability, two state-of-the-art sketch searching methods. Moreover, a user study showed that the sketch graph is consistently preferred over traditional representations such as keywords and keyframes. The second user study showed that the proposed approach is applicable in those scenarios where the video annotator and organizer were the same person. The third user study showed that, for video content organization, using sketch graph users took on average 1/3 less time than using a mass-market tool Movie Maker and took on average 1/4 less time than using a state-of-theart sketch alternative. These results demonstrated that the proposed sketch graph approach is a promising video organization tool.
|Journal||ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Aug 2014|