A small dose of whey protein co-ingested with mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals improves postprandial glycemia and suppresses appetite in men with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial

David G. King, Mark Walker, Matthew D. Campbell, Leigh Breen, Emma J. Stevenson, Daniel J. West*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Background Large doses of whey protein consumed as a preload before single high-glycemic load meals has been shown to improve postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if this effect remains with smaller doses of whey co-ingested at consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals. Moreover, whether hydrolyzed whey offers further benefit under these conditions is unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic and appetite responses after small doses of intact and hydrolyzed whey protein co-ingested with mixed-nutrient breakfast and lunch meals in men with type 2 diabetes. Design In a randomized, single-blind crossover design, 11 men with type 2 diabetes [mean ± SD age: 54.9 ± 2.3 y; glycated hemoglobin: 6.8% ± 0.3% (51.3 ± 3.4 mmol/mol)] attended the laboratory on 3 mornings and consumed 1) intact whey protein (15 g), 2) hydrolyzed whey protein (15 g), or 3) placebo (control) immediately before mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals, separated by 3 h. Blood samples were collected periodically and were processed for insulin, intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), leptin, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY 3-36), and amino acid concentrations. Interstitial glucose was measured during and for 24 h after each trial. Subjective appetite was assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Results Total postprandial glycemia area under the curve was reduced by 13% ± 3% after breakfast following the intact whey protein when compared with control (P < 0.05). Hydrolyzed whey attenuated early glucose after breakfast when compared with control (P < 0.05). Glycemia was improved postlunch after the intact whey protein only when compared with control (P < 0.05). Greater satiety was observed after the intact whey protein only after both meals when compared with control (P < 0.05). Insulin concentrations increased after both the intact and hydrolyzed whey protein, showing strong positive correlations with increases in valine and isoleucine (P < 0.05). Incretin and appetite regulatory hormone responses were similar across trials (P > 0.05). Conclusions The consumption of a small 15-g dose of intact whey protein immediately before consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals improves postprandial glycemia, stimulates insulin release, and increases satiety in men with type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered at www.clinicialtrials.gov as NCT02903199.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)550-557
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume107
Issue number4
Early online date9 Apr 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018

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