Diabetes patients need to monitor blood glucose all year round. In this article, a novel scheme is proposed for blood glucose detection. The proposed sensor is based on a U-shaped microfiber prepared using hydrogen-oxygen flame-heating technology, and then 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glucose oxidase (GOD) are successively coated on the surface of the U-shaped microfiber via a coating technique. The glucose reacts with the GOD of the sensor surface to produce gluconic acid, which changes the effective refractive index and then shifts the interference wavelength. The structure and morphology of the sensor were characterized via scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser microscopy (CLM). The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the sensor is as high as 5.73 nm/(mg/mL). Compared with the glucose sensor composed of the same material, the sensitivity of the sensor increased by 329%. The proposed sensor has a broad application prospect in blood glucose detection of diabetic patients due to the advantages of miniaturization, high sensitivity, and good stability.