In this paper, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensor is proposed for simultaneously measuring the refractive index (RI) and temperature. In the design, the central air hole and external surface of the proposed PCF are coated with gold films, and an air hole is filled with the temperature-sensitive material (TSM). By introducing the inner and outer gold films and TSM, the RI and temperature can be measured simultaneously at different wavelength regions. The simulation results show that the average wavelength sensitivities of the proposed SPR-based PCF sensor can reach 4520 nm/RIU and 4.83 nm/°C in the RI range of 1.35~1.40 and a temperature range of 20~60 °C, respectively. Moreover, because of using the different wavelength regions for sensing, the RI and temperature detections of the proposed SPR-based PCF sensor can be achieved independently. It is believed that the proposed SPR-based PCF RI and temperature sensor has important applications in biomedicine and in environmental science.