With intense global competition, many enterprises adopt platform strategies to develop diverse products with a lower corresponding increase in cost and a shorter lead time. In the past, enormous efforts have been made in investigating product platforms. Recent researches and practices show that developing Uncertainty-Oriented Product Platform (UOPP) is a promising approach to improving the adaptability of enterprises to meet uncertain markets, customer requirements, technologies, policies, and regulations, etc., which includes flexible product platform, adaptable product platform, market-driven product platform, and sustainable product platform. This paper provides a comprehensive review in this field, including the connotation of uncertainty, the concepts of emerging UOPPs, the development process of UOPP, as well as the development technologies in each step. It also highlights the future research framework, opportunities and challenges. This literature review lays the foundation for future research of product platform design under uncertainty.