In this paper, a V-shape photonic crystal fiber (PCF) polarization filter based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect is proposed. With the full vector finite element method, the V-shape photonic crystal fiber polarization filter is designed, and the coupling characteristics between the core mode and surface plasmon polariton mode are analyzed. The simulation results show that the fiber parameters have significant effects on the shift and strength of the SPR wavelength. Moreover, the losses of the core modes along the Y and X polarization directions are 68904 dB/m and 858 dB/m at the SPR wavelength of 1550 nm, respectively. Finally, the extinction ratio and error-tolerant rate of extinction ratio are also analyzed. The proposed V-shape PCF polarization filter can achieve good filtering effect in the communication band and is easy to integrate with existing optical fiber communication and sensing systems.