Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) leads to the degradation of protein structures within the muscle. This may subsequently lead to decrements in muscle performance and increases in intramuscular enzymes and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Milk, which provides protein and carbohydrate (CHO), may lead to the attenuation of protein degradation and (or) an increase in protein synthesis that would limit the consequential effects of EIMD. This study examined the effects of acute milk and milk-based protein–CHO (CHO-P) supplementation on attenuating EIMD. Four independent groups of 6 healthy males consumed water (CON), CHO sports drink, milk-based CHO-P or milk (M), post EIMD. DOMS, isokinetic muscle performance, creatine kinase (CK), and myoglobin (Mb) were assessed immediately before and 24 and 48 h after EIMD. DOMS was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between groups at any time point. Peak torque (dominant) was significantly higher (p <0.05) 48 h after CHO-P compared with CHO and CON, and M compared with CHO. Total work of the set (dominant) was significantly higher (p <0.05) 48 h after CHO-P and M compared with CHO and CON. CK was significantly lower (p <0.05) 48 h after CHO-P and M compared with CHO. Mb was significantly lower (p <0.05) 48 h after CHO-P compared with CHO. At 48 h post-EIMD, milk and milk-based protein–CHO supplementation resulted in the attenuation of decreases in isokinetic muscle performance and increases in CK and Mb.