Purpose: We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the corticospinal responses from an agonist and synergist muscle following strength training of the right elbow flexors. Methods: Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the Biceps Brachii and Flexor Carpi Radialis during a submaximal contraction from 20 individuals (10 women, 10 men, aged 18-35 years; training group; n = 10 and control group; n = 10) before and after three weeks of strength training at 80% of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM). To characterise the input-output properties of the corticospinal tract, stimulus-response curves for corticospinal excitability and inhibition of the right Biceps Brachii and Flexor Carpi Radialis were constructed and assessed by examining the area under the recruitment curve (AURC).Results: Strength training resulted in a 29% (P <0.001) increase in 1-RM Biceps Brachii strength and this was accompanied by a 19% increase in isometric strength of the wrist flexors (P = 0.001). TMS revealed an increase in corticospinal excitability AURC and a decrease in silent period duration AURC for the Biceps Brachii and Flexor Carpi Radialis following strength training (all P <0.05). However, the changes in corticospinal function were not associated with increased muscle strength. Conclusion: These findings show that the corticospinal responses to strength training of a proximal upper limb muscle is not spatially restricted, but rather, results in a change in connectivity, among an agonist and a synergistic muscle relevant to force production.