Adjuvant synergy: the effects of nasal coadministration of adjuvants

Sterghios Moschos, Vincent Bramwell, Satyanarayna Somavarapu, H. Oya Alpar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Modern peptide and protein subunit vaccines suffer from poor immunogenicity and require the use of adjuvants. However, none of the currently licensed adjuvants can elicit cell-mediated immunity or are suitable for mucosal immunization. In this study we explored the immunological effect of nasal co-administration of adjuvants with distinct functions: cholera toxin subunit B, a potent mucosal adjuvant that induces strong humoral responses, muramy di-peptide (MDP), an adjuvant known to elicit cell mediated immunity but rarely used nasally, and chitosan, an adjuvant that achieves specific physiological effects on mucosal membranes that improve antigen uptake. Groups of five female BALB/c mice received on days 1 and 56 nasal instillations of the recombinant Helicobacter pylori antigen urease admixed to single or multiple adjuvant combinations. Serum IgG kinetics were followed over 24 weeks. At the conclusion of the experiment, local antibody responses were determined and antigen-specific recall responses in splenocyte cultures were assayed for proliferation and cytokine production. The combination of adjuvants was shown to further contribute to the increased antigenicity of recombinant H. pylori urease. The data presented here outline and support facilitation of increased immunomodulation by an adjuvant previously defined as an effective mucosal adjuvant (chitosan) for another adjuvant (MDP) that is not normally effective via this route.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)628-37
JournalImmunology and Cell Biology
Issue number6
Early online date2 Nov 2004
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004


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