The main objective of this research is to design and implement an eight-hydrophone transmitter array for generating bipolar acoustic pulses mimicking those produced by cosmogenic neutrino interaction in sea water. In addition, the research was conducted as part of the ACoRNE collaboration. The work initially investigated a single hydrophone system. Due to the nature of hydrophone, the acoustic output signal does not precisely follow a given driving voltage input. Hence signal processing techniques and hydrophone modelling were applied. A bipolar acoustic generation module was built using 8-bit PIC microcontrollers for processing and control. A NI USB-6211 National Instruments commercial module was used for validation of results. The modelling was compared to experimental data generated in a water tank, showing excellent agreement. This single hydrophone instrument was deployed at the Rona array in 2008. Both 10 kHz and 23 kHz pulses were injected, whilst seven hydrophones at Rona site were chosen as the receiver hydrophone array. Signal processing techniques were applied to identify these pulses. The result showed that the triggered pulses can be detected and identified at Rona over a distance of a few hundred metres. A model for an eight-hydrophone transmission linear array system for the ANTARES site was developed. The simulation showed that the eight hydrophones arranged over an eight-metre spacing structure can mimic the anticipated pancake behaviour predicted from neutrino-induced showers as well as generating the acoustic bipolar pulse shape of sufficient amplitude for detection at ANTARES. An eight-channel arbitrary waveform generator module was designed and built using 16-bit dsPIC microcontrollers. Signal Processing techniques were again applied to calibrate the hydrophone transmitter array. The behaviour of an acoustic transducer array was examined in a laboratory water tank to study the shape and direction of such a signal in water. The results were validated against a PXI-6713 commercial module. Excellent agreement was achieved. Finally, the system was deployed at the ANTARES site in September 2011. A range of test signals including 23 kHz bipolar pulses, sine signals and orthogonal signals were injected into seawater to simulate neutrino interactions and investigate signal coding. Signal processing techniques were applied to the data deployed in order to recognise the signals emitted. However, the vessel was far away from the position planned (c 1km), hence the signal received was too weak and no signal was detected. However, the deployed data is still very useful in order to study the noise background of seawater and much has been learned for future sea campaigns.
|Publication status||In preparation - Oct 2012|