While dietary intake has previously been related to various indices of poor sleep (e.g., short sleep duration, poor sleep quality), to date, few studies have examined chrononutrition from the perspectives of the relationship between dietary intake and social jet lag and temporal sleep variability. Moreover, recently it has been suggested that previous methods of measuring social jet lag have the potential to lead to large overestimations. Together, this precludes a clear understanding of the role of nutritional composition in the pathophysiology of poor sleep, via social jet lag and temporal sleep variability, or vice versa. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships between nutrient intake and social jet lag (using a revised index, taking account of intention to sleep and sleep onset and offset difficulties), and temporal sleep variability. Using a cross-sectional survey, 657 healthy participants (mean age 26.7 ± 6.1 years), without sleep disorders, were recruited via an online platform and completed measures of weekly dietary intake, social jet lag, temporal sleep variability, stress/sleep reactivity and mood. Results showed limited associations between nutritional composition and social jet lag. However, levels of temporal sleep variability were predicted by consumption of polyunsaturated fats, sodium, chloride and total energy intake. The results suggest further examinations of specific nutrients are warranted in a first step to tailoring interventions to manage diet and temporal variabilities in sleep patterns.