The rapid increase in volume and types of hazardous waste (HW) due to China’s continuous economic growth makes it significant to conduct HW safety management. However, due to the information asymmetry between the regulators and regulated institutions, problems such as illegal dumping and statistical fraud are common in hazardous waste transfer (HWT) activities. Moreover, there is a severe problem of information isolated island among waste production, transportation, and treatment companies in the HW market. Promoting the information monitoring and tracking of the whole process of HWT is the main challenge for HW management. Blockchain provides an ideal solution to overcome the above challenges. This study developed a framework for the blockchain-based HWT management system, which could support government regulators to obtain relevant information in HWT and improve the efficiency of HWT. The HWT management system was introduced in detail from different perspectives, including infrastructure, blockchain service, functions, and users, emphasizing six information management functions. Finally, the positive impact and various challenges encountered in implementing blockchain in HWT management were discussed. This study applies blockchain to the research field of HWT management, which expands the application of blockchain in the field of solid waste management with great theoretical and practical significance.