An Investigation into the State of Cybersecurity Preparedness with Respect to Operational Technology

Farouk Akrama, Hamid Jahankhani*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The importance of software-level communication security in ICS is growing as these systems become more automated and connected to the outside world. This chapter provides a secure-by-design approach to ICS application development, where design-time abstractions known as secure links are used to meet criteria from security protocols like ISA/IEC 62443. Secure links are a proposed addition to an IEC 61499 design standard that makes it easy to integrate both lightweight and conventional security measures into software. Automatic compilation into completely IEC 61499-compliant software is possible for applications that use secure links. To keep up with this demand for greater adaptability. Nowadays, in the revolution of digitalization, automation plays significant role to achieve a sufficient level of security and reduce the use of both human resources and static processes. Therefore, it is crucial to model all security related capabilities and functionalities. In this chapter a unique requirements repository model for Industrial Control System that applies the LPGs (Labelled Property Graphs) to form and store standards based and system specific requirements using well-defined relationship types are highlighted. In addition, the researcher integrates the proposed requirements repository with the Industrial Control System design tools to determine requirements traceability. A wind turbine case study demonstrates the entire workflow within the proposed framework.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWireless Networks
Subtitle of host publicationCyber Security Threats and Countermeasures
EditorsHamid Jahankhani, Ayman El Hajjar
Place of PublicationCham
Number of pages48
ISBN (Electronic)9783031336317
ISBN (Print)9783031336331, 9783031336300
Publication statusPublished - 24 Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameAdvanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications
VolumePart F1307
ISSN (Print)1613-5113
ISSN (Electronic)2363-9466

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