Analysis of factors influencing Circular-Lean-Six Sigma 4.0 implementation considering sustainability implications: An exploratory study

Dounia Skalli, Abdelkabir Charkaouiai, Anass Cherrafi, Alireza Shokri*, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes, Jiju Antony

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
55 Downloads (Pure)


In this study, we develop a new paradigm, Circular Lean Six Sigma 4.0 (CLSS4.0) to promote manufacturing sustainability. This paper aims to provide a practical and holistic view of the drivers and barriers that can help companies design an integrated CLSS4.0 model. The paper is based on a qualitative exploratory study using multiple case studies within 12 Moroccan manufacturing firms conducted through semi-structured interviews with top executive managers. The results show that the drivers are related to expected operational and environmental performance, increasing customer requirements, gaining competitive advantage and market growth while barriers are related to insufficient tangible (finance, human and equipment) and intangible (skills and techniques) resources, data privacy, technical issues and management support. The proposed framework identifies the assessment of drivers and barriers and their attributes as a starting point for managers to lead the CLSS4.0 transformation, thereby contributing to its successful implementation. To the best of our knowledge, this study is among the very first studies to discuss the CLSS4.0 drivers and barriers. It could be useful to managers as a diagnostic tool to assess their ability to implement CLSS4.0 before investing in the initiative
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3890-3917
Number of pages28
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Issue number11
Early online date7 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jun 2024

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