Streptococcus mutans, a dental caries causing odontopathogen, produces X-prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase (Sm-XPDAP, encoded by pepX), a serine protease known to have a nutritional role. Considering the potential of proteases as therapeutic targets in pathogens, this study was primarily aimed at investigating the role of Sm-XPDAP in contributing to virulence-related traits. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP IV), an XPDAP analogous enzyme found in mammalian tissues,is a well known therapeutic target in Type II diabetes. Based on the hypothesis that gliptins, commonly used as anti-human-DPP IV drugs, may affect bacterial growth upon inhibition of Sm-XPDAP, we have determined their ex vivo antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity towards S. mutans. All three DPP IV drugs tested reduced biofilm formation as determined by crystal violet staining. To link the observed biofilm inhibition to the human-DPP IV analogue present in S. mutans UA159, a pepX isogenic mutant was generated. In addition to reduced biofilm formation, CLSM studies of the biofilm formed by the pepX isogenic mutant showed these were comparable to those formed in the presence of saxagliptin, suggesting a probable role of this enzyme in biofilm formation by S. mutans UA159. The effects of both pepX deletion and DPP IV drugs on the proteome were studied using LC–MS/MS. Overall, this study highlights the potential of Sm-XPDAP as a novel anti-biofilm target and suggests a template molecule to synthesize lead compounds effective against this enzyme.