Approaches to energy efficiency in air conditioning: Innovative processes and thermodynamics

Kim Choon Ng*, Muhammad Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad Burhan, Seung Jin Oh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


Air conditioning in buildings has transformed our human lives greatly with work efficiency in commercial buildings and improved lifestyle in all weather. However, these improvements are accompanied with the negative effects from the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), both directly via refrigerant emissions and indirectly through electricity generation by the burning of fossil fuels. Although there were significant improvements in the efficacy of chillers since 2000, the kW/Ron of chillers for cooling for electrically driven DCS have reached an asymptotic level of 0.85±0.03 kW/Rton for the tropics and a 20% higher for the hot and dry arid climate. The levelling-off phenomenon of chillers' energy efficiency is attributed the improvements limits exploited from the efficacy of compressor and refrigerant technologies. Thus, an out-of-box solution, such as the decoupling of latent to sensible cooling in the dehumidification cum the indirect evaporative coolers (DH-IEC) to improve energy efficiency, It is projected that a quantum jump of 0.5 kWh/m3 or less is urgently needed for future sustainable cooling. In this paper, we adopted a top-down approach in evaluating the upper-bound energy savings of an economy if one were to employ the innovative DH-IEC cycle is assumed to be applied to the Singapore city state is highlighted with respect to the savings in the primary energy, emission of CO2 and the water savings of up to 40 % can be potentially achieved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1455-1460
Number of pages6
JournalEnergy Procedia
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes
Event10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018 - Hong Kong, China
Duration: 22 Aug 201825 Aug 2018


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