The present study investigated the roles birthplace and acculturation play in sleep estimates among Hispanic/Latino population at the US–Mexico border.
Data were collected in 2016, from N = 100 adults of Mexican descent from the city of Nogales, AZ, at the US–Mexico border. Sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index categorized as none, mild, moderate, and severe, and Multivariable Apnea Prediction Index (MAP) categorized as never, infrequently, and frequently. Acculturation was measured with the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans II (ARSMA-II).
The sample consisted of majority Mexican-born (66%, vs. born in the USA 38.2%). Being born in the USA was associated with 55 fewer minutes of nighttime sleep (p = .011), and 1.65 greater PSQI score (p = .031). Compared to no symptoms, being born in the USA was associated with greater likelihood of severe difficulty falling asleep (OR = 8.3, p = .030) and severe difficulty staying asleep (OR = 11.2, p = .050), as well as decreased likelihood of breathing pauses during sleep (OR = 0.18, P = .020). These relationships remained significant after Mexican acculturation was entered in these models. However, greater Anglo acculturation appears to mediate one fewer hour of sleep per night, poorer sleep quality, and reporting of severe difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep.
Among individuals of Mexican descent, being born in the USA (vs Mexico) is associated with about 1 hour less sleep per night, worse sleep quality, more insomnia symptoms, and less mild sleep apnea symptoms. These relationships are influenced by acculturation, primarily the degree of Anglo rather than the degree of Mexican acculturation.