The innovative technique described in this article is the result of the evolution of a traditional building technique (tabicada technique or tile vaulting method) belonging to the constructive Spanish tradition. This technique consists in the realization of thin masonry vaults by placing several layers of thin bricks alternated with coatings of hydraulic mortar. Since the use of a modern technology may improve the mechanical performance of the traditional materials, the proposed strengthening system is based on the combination of the typical features of tabicada technique with the high mechanical properties of the composite materials. In order to provide extra tensile strength to the vaulted structure, composite grids were inserted between the brick layers into the mortar coating as well as on the outer surface of the vaults. Seventeen arch specimens were tested under a monotonic vertical compression load applied at the keystone. The influence of the type of strengthening arrangements, arch thickness and properties of hydraulic mortars were investigated. Test results are presented and discussed considering the mechanical behavior of the specimens and the axial stress-axial strain relationships.