Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been associated with decreased risk of chronic diseases such as CVD and certain types of cancers. Daily consumption of five portions (400 g) or more of F&V has been recommended by the WHO and the UK's Scientific Advisory Committee of Nutrition (SACN). Yet there is no clear advice on the optimum type or quantity of F&V for disease prevention. Epidemiological evidence supports the association of high–dietary flavonoid intake and reduced risk of CVD. However, dose response, randomised, controlled trials are required to confirm these findings.