This paper presents a broadband high-efficiency circularly polarized (CP) active integrated antenna, and a broadband CP active array at 2 GHz. To realize the broadband CP antenna, a circular patch is aperture coupled by crossed slots in the ground plane, which are fed by an L-shaped microstrip feed line below the ground. The antenna is designed to serve the functions of both a radiator and a harmonics-terminated load for class-E high-efficiency power-amplifier (PA) integration. The broadband CP active antenna is realized by directly integrating the broadband CP antenna with the class-E PA. It achieves a 9% bandwidth (1.84-2.01 GHz) for axial ratio (AR) below 3 dB, and a 12% bandwidth for power-added efficiency (PAE) over 60%. To form the broadband CP active array, four active antenna elements are sequentially rotated, and each element is directly integrated with broadband class-E PA. A low-cost printed-circuit-board technology is employed in fabrication and a pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistor is used. A peak drain efficiency of 71.5% for the class-E amplifier is measured at 1.95 GHz. The active array achieves a peak-effective radiated power of 39.7 dBm, and PAE is over 50% within a 22.6% bandwidth (1.72-2.16 GHz). The AR is below 3 dB over a 27% bandwidth (1.72-2.26 GHz).
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2006|