The capability of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to characterize composite material interfaces can help in the design of new carbon-based nanocomposites by providing useful information on the structure-property relationship. In this paper, the potentiality of AFM is explored to investigate the dispersion and the morphological features of aeronautical epoxy resins loaded with several carbon nanostructured fillers. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal investigations of the formulated samples have also been performed. The FTIR results show that, among the examined nanoparticles, exfoliated graphite (EG) with a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) shape favors the hardening process of the epoxy matrix, increasing its reaction rate. As evidenced by the FTIR signal related to the epoxy stretching frequency (907 cm -1), the accelerating effect of the EG sample increases as the filler concentration increases. This effect, already observable for curing treatment of 60 min conducted at the low temperature of 125 °C, suggests a very fast opening of epoxy groups at the beginning of the cross-linking process. For all the analyzed samples, the percentage of the curing degree (DC) goes beyond 90%, reaching up to 100% for the EG-based nanocomposites. Besides, the addition of the exfoliated graphite enhances the thermostability of the samples up to about 370 °C, even in the case of very low EG percentages (0.05% by weight).