In search of a recyclable catalyst with synergistic adsorption and photocatalysis, unique composite photocatalysts of flower-like bismuth tungstate (Bi2WO6) and carbon nanospheres (CSs) were composited using a hydrothermal synthesis method (named CSs-Bi2WO6). Notably, based on the high visible light utilization and a reasonable band gap (2.53 eV), CSs-Bi2WO6 have good photocatalytic properties. For example, the composite with an optimized ratio (2% CSs-Bi2WO6) showed good adsorption and photocatalytic performance. Under simulated natural light conditions, the degradation rate of tetracycline (TC) by 2% CSs-Bi2WO6 was 84.6% in 60 min, which is nearly 25% higher than pure Bi2WO6. After five cycles, the observed barely decreased TC degradation rate of 2% CSs-Bi2WO6 confirmed the high cyclability and reproducibility of the photocatalyst. The total organic carbon estimation of the post-degradation reaction medium corresponded to 68.2% mineralization. Furthermore, we determined the photocatalytic reaction path by LC–MS, which confirmed that the composite catalyst could effectively degrade TC molecules into small molecules. It can be concluded that the catalyst has a broad application prospect in the field of wastewater treatment.