Limited interventions exist that support student’s school participation. This paper describes a theoretical model of school participation and the iterative process that led to the development of an intervention that aims to improve the school participation of students on the autism spectrum and their typically developing peers. Literature on autism, school participation and intervention research were integrated to develop a theoretical model. Focus groups, a Delphi study, online surveys, and reference group consultation helped to develop and refine the intervention. A novel school-based intervention was developed. The impetus to develop interventions with a strong theoretical rationale is discussed.