Combining electric vehicle battery charging and battery cell equalisation in one circuit

Huaxia Zhan, Haimeng Wu*, Musbahu Muhammad, Simon Lambert, Volker Pickert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
644 Downloads (Pure)


Electric vehicles (EVs) require an onboard battery charger unit and a battery management system (BMS) unit that balances the voltage levels for each battery cell. So far both units are two completely autarkic power electronics systems. This paper presents a circuit that operates as a battery charger when the EV is connected to the grid and as a voltage balancer when the EV is driving. Thus, the proposed circuit utilises two functions in one and therefore eliminates the need of having two autarkic units reducing complexity and reduction in component count. The proposed circuit operates as a flyback converter and achieves power factor correction during battery charging. The constant-current constant-voltage (CC–CV) charging method is employed to charge the batteries. However, to limit the number of sensors that will be employed as a result of varying cells during charging, the battery current is estimated using a single current transducer and embedding a converter model in the controller. The operation of the circuit is presented in detail and is supported by simulation results. A laboratory prototype is built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed topology. Experiment results show that the proposed method provides an integrated solution of on-board charging and voltage equalisation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-390
Number of pages14
JournalIET Electrical Systems in Transportation
Issue number4
Early online date23 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


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