Community Influences on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Kenya: Norms, Opportunities, and Ethnic Diversity

Rose Grace Grose, Sarah R. Hayford, Yuk Fai Cheong, Sarah Garver, Ngianga Bakwin Kandala, Kathryn M. Yount*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
45 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC) is a human rights violation with adverse health consequences. Although prevalence is declining, the practice persists in many countries, and the individual and contextual risk factors associated with FGMC remain poorly understood. We propose an integrated theory about contextual factors and test it using multilevel discrete-time hazard models in a nationally representative sample of 7,535 women with daughters who participated in the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. A daughter’s adjusted hazard of FGMC was lower if she had an uncut mother who disfavored FGMC, lived in a community that was more opposed to FGMC, and lived in a more ethnically diverse community. Unexpectedly, a daughter’s adjusted FGMC hazard was higher if she lived in a community with more extrafamilial opportunities for women. Other measures of women’s opportunities warrant consideration, and interventions to shift FGMC norms in more ethnically diverse communities show promise to accelerate abandonment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-100
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Health and Social Behavior
Volume60
Issue number1
Early online date7 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

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