Comparison of TOF and SL techniques for in-line measurement of food item volume using animal and vegetable tissues

Samuel Verdú, Eugenio Ivorra*, Antonio J. Sánchez, Joel Girón, Jose M. Barat, Raúl Grau

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


A comparison between the techniques Time of flight (TOF) and Structured Light (SL), for in-line process, was carried out to determine the volume of several food types with different compositions, structures and dimensions; 2 meat tissue (lean meat and pork fat) and 3 vegetable tissue (potato, apple and avocado). The volume obtained was compared with that determined by physical measurements, employing two statistical methods (a Bland-Altman study and partial least square analysis). Results showed that Structured Light (SL) was a better technique than Time of flight (TOF) for determining volume. The TOF technique was affected by factors which were more influential when the S/V ratio (surface of the sample exposed to the camera and sample volume) increased. SL was slightly affected by the composition of the sample. Fat content and the level of unsaturated fatty acids could be the reason for the reflection of the laser light on the surface of the samples thereby reducing the accuracy. Even so, the values of R2 and RMSE of cross-validation, for the worst fit, demonstrated the quality of the SL technique.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-226
Number of pages6
JournalFood Control
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2013
Externally publishedYes

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