BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits are expressions of underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorders which have a potential impact on mental health status, neurocognition, quality of life, and daily functioning. To date, little research has examined epidemiologic landscape of schizotypal traits at the cross-national level. Our aim was to study the expression of schizotypal traits by sex, age, and country in a combined sample gathered from 12 countries.
METHODS: A total of 27,001 participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The mean age of participants was 22.12 (SD=6.28); 37.5% (n=10,126) were males.
RESULTS: Schizotypal traits varied according to sex, age, and country. Females scored higher than males in the positive dimension, whereas males scored higher in the disorganization dimension. By age, a significant decrease in the positive schizotypal traits was observed. Epidemiological expression of schizotypal traits varied by country. Moreover, several interactions by sex, age, and country were found.
CONCLUSIONS: This pattern is similar to those found in patients with psychosis and psychotic-like experiences. These findings provide new insights and the opportunity to explore the phenotypic expression of schizotypal traits at cross-national level.