Content Fragile Watermarking for H.264/AVC Video Authentication

Karima Ait Saadi, Abderrezak Guessoum, Ahmed Bouridane, Fouad Khelifi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


Discrete Cosine transform (DCT) to generate the authentication data that are treated as a fragile watermark. This watermark is embedded in the motion vectors (MVs) The advances in multimedia technologies and digital processing tools have brought with them new challenges for the source and content authentication. To ensure the integrity of the H.264/AVC video stream, we introduce an approach based on a content fragile video watermarking method using an independent authentication of each Group of Pictures (GOPs) within the video. This technique uses robust visual features extracted from the video pertaining to the set of selected macroblocs (MBs) which hold the best partition mode in a tree-structured motion compensation process. An additional security degree is offered by the proposed method through using a more secured keyed function HMAC-SHA-256 and randomly choosing candidates from already selected MBs. In here, the watermark detection and verification processes are blind, whereas the tampered frames detection is not since it needs the original frames within the tampered GOPs. The proposed scheme achieves an accurate authentication technique with a high fragility and fidelity whilst maintaining the original bitrate and the perceptual quality. Furthermore, its ability to detect the tampered frames in case of spatial, temporal and colour manipulations, is confirmed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Electronics
Early online date4 Oct 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Oct 2016


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