Renewable energy systems (RES) and electric vehicles (EVS) are increasingly employed to provide green energy supply and transport systems. However, their integration presents various challenges to the power grid, such as power quality issues and uncontrolled EV charging. Consequently, this chapter discusses the current global market for PV and EV, and their impact on the electricity grid from various aspects such as the power quality, grid stability, and electricity market. The chapter introduces the use of energy technologies in a smart grid scenario and thus, various classifications of microgrids and interconnection among energy sources is also presented. The effective utilization of renewables and EV requires intelligent, adaptive, and diversified control algorithms to measure, monitor, and control energy exchange, provide high quality power, maximum grid support, increased energy autonomy, low operational cost, and reduced carbon emissions. Consequently, DC and AC side controls are discussed with focus on the AC-side (which includes synchronization, current controllers, and PQ controllers). Furthermore, to compliment the operation of EV, battery modelling and smart charging algorithms are presented with comparison among various available methods along with their pros and cons. Finally, a comparison of various digital real-time simulators is presented, which helps in reproducing the test system and its dynamics, together with sensors and actuators but without the need for field testing on large-scale real systems and the subsequent expense and fault-finding issues. This chapter provides an in-depth knowledge on grid-connected systems and would help engineers and researchers in this field to select suitable microgrid topology, control algorithm and charging technique to manage and control energy exchange between the grid, renewables, and EVs.
|Title of host publication||Microgrid Cyberphysical Systems|
|Subtitle of host publication||Renewable Energy and Plug-In Vehicle Integration|
|Editors||Bidyadhar Subudhi, Pravat Kumar Ray|
|Place of Publication||Amsterdam, Netherlands|
|Number of pages||42|
|Publication status||Published - 2022|