Objective: Rodent models have suggested that initial low-pressure reperfusion of transplanted lungs reduces injury after ischemia. We investigated this phenomenon and the use of pentoxifylline in a porcine model of left single lung transplantation. Methods: Donor lungs were preserved with Euro-Collins solution for a mean ischemic time of 18.4 hours. Neutrophil trapping in the graft, pulmonary artery pressure, and gas exchange were assessed over a 12-hour period. Partial occlusion of the contralateral pulmonary artery allowed manipulation of the pulmonary artery pressure in the transplanted lung. Group A (n = 5) was perfused at a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 20 mm Hg, group B was reperfused at a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 45 mm Hg for 10 minutes before reducing the pressure to the same as group A, and group C was reperfused at a mean pressure of 20 mm Hg for 10 minutes, then increased to a mean of 45 mm Hg for the remainder of the experiment. Group D was reperfused as in group A with the addition of intravenous pentoxifylline. Results: Leukocyte sequestration was observed in the first 10 minutes after reperfusion in groups A, B, and C, with maximal sequestration at 2 minutes. Significantly more sequestration was observed in the first 6 minutes in group B than in groups A and C, which were similar. Pentoxifylline significantly reduced leukocyte sequestration. Pulmonary venous oxygen tension in the allograft lung was worst in group B. Groups A and C were similar, but group D was superior to all other groups (p <0.001). Conclusions: Low-pressure reperfusion, even when limited to the first 10 minutes, modulates reperfusion injury possibly through a leukocyte-dependent mechanism. The addition of pentoxifylline in the recipient confers significant additional benefit.