Copy-move forgery detection: Survey, challenges and future directions

Nor Bakiah Abd Warif, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris, Roziana Ramli, Rosli Salleh, Shahaboddin Shamshirband, Kim Kwang Raymond Choo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

160 Citations (Scopus)


The authenticity and reliability of digital images are increasingly important due to the ease in modifying such images. Thus, the capability to identify image manipulation is a current research focus, and a key domain in digital image authentication is Copy-move forgery detection (CMFD). Copy-move forgery is the process of copying and pasting from one region to another location within the same image. In this paper, we survey the recent developments in CMFD, and describe the entire CMFD process involved. Specifically, we characterize the common CMFD workflow of feature extraction and matching process using block or keypoint-based approaches. Instead of listing the datasets and validations used in the literature, we also categorize the types of copied regions. Finally, we also outline a number of future research directions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-278
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Network and Computer Applications
Early online date13 Sept 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016
Externally publishedYes

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