This paper aims at analyzing the coupled nonlinear dynamical behavior of geometrically imperfect shear deformable extensible microbeams based on the third-order shear deformation and modified couple stress theories. Using Hamilton's principle and taking into account extensibility, the three nonlinear coupled continuous expressions are obtained for an initially slightly curved (i.e., a geometrically imperfect) microbeam, describing the longitudinal, transverse, and rotational motions. A high-dimensional Galerkin scheme is employed, together with an assumed-mode technique, in order to truncate the continuous system with an infinite number of degrees of freedom into a discretized model with sufficient degrees of freedom. This high-dimensional discretized model is solved by means of the pseudo-arclength continuation technique for the system at the primary resonance, and also by direct time-integration to characterize the dynamic response at a fixed forcing amplitude and frequency; stability analysis is conducted via the Floquet theory. Apart from analyzing the nonlinear resonant response, the linear natural frequencies are obtained via an eigenvalue analysis. Results are shown through frequency-response curves, force-response curves, time traces, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). The effect of taking into account the length-scale parameter on the coupled nonlinear dynamic response of the system is also highlighted.