Density−Viscosity Product of Small-Volume Ionic Liquid Samples Using Quartz Crystal Impedance Analysis

Glen McHale, Christopher Hardacre, Rile Ge, Nicola Doy, Ray Allen, Jordan MacInnes, Mark Bown, Michael Newton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

97 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Quartz crystal impedance analysis has been developed as a technique to assess whether room-temperature ionic liquids are Newtonian fluids and as a small-volume method for determining the values of their viscosity−density product, ρη. Changes in the impedance spectrum of a 5-MHz fundamental frequency quartz crystal induced by a water-miscible room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimiclazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([C4mim][OTf]), were measured. From coupled frequency shift and bandwidth changes as the concentration was varied from 0 to 100% ionic liquid, it was determined that this liquid provided a Newtonian response. A second water-immiscible ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C4mim][NTf2], with concentration varied using methanol, was tested and also found to provide a Newtonian response. In both cases, the values of the square root of the viscosity−density product deduced from the small-volume quartz crystal technique were consistent with those measured using a viscometer and density meter. The third harmonic of the crystal was found to provide the closest agreement between the two measurement methods; the pure ionic liquids had the largest difference of 10%. In addition, 18 pure ionic liquids were tested, and for 11 of these, good-quality frequency shift and bandwidth data were obtained; these 12 all had a Newtonian response. The frequency shift of the third harmonic was found to vary linearly with square root of viscosity−density product of the pure ionic liquids up to a value of √(ρη) ≈ 18 kg m−2 s−1/2, but with a slope 10% smaller than that predicted by the Kanazawa and Gordon equation. It is envisaged that the quartz crystal technique could be used in a high-throughput microfluidic system for characterizing ionic liquids.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5806-5811
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Volume80
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jul 2008

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