HCI has started to explore the positive roles that technology can play in improving the lives of people facing cognitive, emotional, physical, and socioeconomic challenges. Despite this encompassing a large percentage of the population, an overarching characteristic that people facing such challenges likely share is that society considers them vulnerable in one way or another. Workshop participants represented a broad range of disciplines, including HCI, psychology, social science, psychiatry, and participatory design. Researchers aimed to develop a shared understanding of who we considered to be vulnerable and why, and how this enabled or required a sensitive and appropriate way of working with these people in research contexts. Examples discussed at the workshop included working with individuals experiencing Asperger's, dementia, homelessness, cerebral palsy, and grief. Despite the variety of people and conditions, many common themes were apparent.