Deterioration of marine concrete exposed to wetting-drying action

Matthew Zhi Yeon Ting, Kwong Soon Wong, Muhammad Ekhlasur Rahman*, Selowara Joo Meheron

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


The adverse effects of hostile marine environment on concrete structure have inevitably resulted in huge economic loss and may contribute to catastrophic failure. Concrete is susceptible to weathering, particularly under wetting-drying action (WDA), although its current state of the art is well established. The diverse characteristics of WDA at different site locations have compromised the reliability of laboratory works. The objective of this study is to review the impact of WDA on concrete and to provide an overview of the research trend, aiming to identify the research gap. Concrete deterioration mechanisms in marine environment in respect of WDA are identified. The influential factors of WDA are analyzed. The physical and mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of concrete exposed to WDA are discussed. WDA aggravates concrete deterioration by hastening intrusion of inimical compounds such as chloride, sulphate and carbon dioxide. Chloride convection zone can be expanded by two to three times to cause a significant concrete cover loss. Physical damage of concrete starts with efflorescence staining, followed by mortar delamination, aggregate detachment and concrete spalling, leading to loss of mechanical properties. The use of mineral admixtures such as fly ash and silica fume improves concrete resistance against corrosion, but its refining effect may lead to over-accumulation of chloride, risking the long-term durability. Limited research works are identified on synergy between physical and chemical deteriorations, validation of simulated experiment, volume expansion, mass change and tensile strength of concrete.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123383
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Early online date3 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes


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