Developing for non-human users: Reflecting on practical implications in the ubiquitous computing era

Dirk van der Linden*, Anna Zamansky, Irit Hadar, Barnaby Craggs

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


Advances in modern technology, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous computing, open up new exciting opportunities for technology for animals. This is evidenced by the explosion of products and gadgets available for pets, digital enrichment for captive animals in zoos, sensor based smart farming, etc. At the same time, the emerging discipline of Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) marks a new era in the design and development of animal technologies, promoting a more animal-centric approach, considering the needs of the animal in the development process. In this article, we reflect on the ways in which ideas of animal-centric development may impact the development of technology for animals in practice. We start by looking at the process of development for and with animals, and propose a development model facilitating the principles of Agility, Welfare of Animals, and eXperts’ involvement (AWAX) within the development lifecycle. While promoting the animal-centric approach, it is important to acknowledge that an animal usually uses technology through humans and in a particular environment. We further extend the AWAX model to include considerations of the human in the loop and the environment, and discuss some practical implications of this view, including aspects such as security and privacy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-58
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Industrial Information Integration
Early online date18 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Developing for non-human users: Reflecting on practical implications in the ubiquitous computing era'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this