Development and Initial Validation of the Assessment of Sleep Environment (ASE): Describing and Quantifying the Impact of Subjective Environmental Factors on Sleep

Michael A Grandner, Dora Y Valencia, Azizi A Seixas, Kayla Oliviér, Rebecca A Gallagher, William D S Killgore, Lauren Hale, Charles Branas, Pamela Alfonso-Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of a 13-item self-report Assessment of Sleep Environment (ASE). This study investigates the relationship between subjective experiences of environmental factors (light, temperature, safety, noise, comfort, humidity, and smell) and sleep-related parameters (insomnia symptoms, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and control over sleep). The ASE was developed using an iterative process, including literature searches for item generation, qualitative feedback, and pilot testing. It was psychometrically assessed using data from the Sleep and Healthy Activity Diet Environment and Socialization (SHADES) study (N = 1007 individuals ages 22-60). Reliability was determined with an internal consistency and factor analysis. Validity was evaluated by comparing ASE to questionnaires of insomnia severity, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep control, perceived stress, and neighborhood disorder. The ASE demonstrated high internal consistency and likely reflects a single factor. ASE score was associated with insomnia symptoms (B = 0.09, p < 0.0001), sleep quality (B = 0.07, p < 0.0001), and sleep control (B = -0.01, p < 0.0001), but not daytime sleepiness. The ASE was also associated with perceived stress (B = 0.20, p < 0.0001) and neighborhood disorder (B = -0.01, p < 0.0001). Among sleep environment factors, only smell was not associated with sleep quality; warmth and safety were negatively associated with sleepiness; and of the sleep environment factors, only light/dark, noise/quiet, and temperature (warm/cool) were not associated with insomnia symptoms. The ASE is a reliable and valid measure of sleep environment. Physical environment (light, temperature, safety, noise, comfort, humidity, and smell) was associated with insomnia symptoms and sleep quality but not sleepiness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13599
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume19
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2022

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