Aim: To investigate the effect of native, heated and glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the ulcerative colitis (UC) and non-UC colonic microbiota in vitro. Methods and Results: Continuous flow culture (CFC) models of the human colonic microbiota inoculated with faeces from UC and non-UC volunteers were maintained on BSA as growth substrate. Changes in bacterial populations and short-chain fatty acids were determined. UC and non-UC microbiota differed significantly in microbial populations, with elevated numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and clostridia in the microbiota from UC patients. Compared with native BSA, glycated BSA modulated the gut microbiota of UC patients in vitro towards a more detrimental community structure with significant increases in putatively harmful bacteria (clostridia, bacteroides and SRB; P <0·009) and decreases in dominant and putatively beneficial bacterial groups (eubacteria and bifidobacteria; P <0·0004). The levels of beneficial short-chain fatty acids were significantly decreased by heated or glycated BSA, but were increased significantly by native BSA. Conclusion: The UC colonic microbiota maintained in CFC was significantly modified by glycated BSA. Significance and Impact of the Study: Results suggest that dietary glycated protein may impact upon the composition and activity of the colonic microbiota, an important environmental variable in UC.