Dietary Patterns, Their Nutrients, and Associations with Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors in Older New Zealand Adults

Karen Mumme, Cathryn Conlon, Pamela von Hurst, Beatrix Jones, Welma Stonehouse, Anne-Louise M Heath, Jane Coad, Crystal Haskell-Ramsay, Jamie de Seymour, Kathryn Beck*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dietary patterns analyse combinations of foods eaten. This cross-sectional study identified dietary patterns and their nutrients. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were examined in older New Zealand adults. Dietary data (109-item food frequency questionnaire) from the Researching Eating, Activity and Cognitive Health (REACH) study ( = 367, 36% male, mean age = 70 years) were collapsed into 57 food groups. Using principal component analysis, three dietary patterns explained 18% of the variation in diet. Dietary pattern associations with sex, age, employment, living situation, education, deprivation score, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking, along with energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, were investigated using regression analysis. Higher 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern scores were associated with being female, higher physical activity, and higher education ( <0.001, R = 0.07). Higher 'Western' pattern scores were associated with being male, higher alcohol intake, living with others, and secondary education ( <0.001, R = 0.16). Higher 'prudent' pattern scores were associated with higher physical activity and lower alcohol intake ( <0.001, R = 0.15). There were positive associations between beta-carotene equivalents, vitamin E, and folate and 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern scores ( <0.0001, R ≥ 0.26); energy intake and 'Western' scores ( <0.0001, R = 0.43); and fibre and carbohydrate and 'prudent' scores ( <0.0001, R ≥ 0.25). Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary patterns. Understanding relationships between these characteristics and dietary patterns can assist in health promotion.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3425
Number of pages17
JournalNutrients
Volume12
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Nov 2020

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