Digital pulse interval modulation for IR communication systems a review

Zabih Ghassemlooy, Andrew Hayes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a brief review of infrared communications systems, modulation techniques and in particular, a digital pulse modulation scheme known as digital pulse interval modulation (DPIM) for infrared (IR) communication systems employing intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD). DPIM code characteristics, power spectral density and error probability in terms of the packet error rate are discussed. Performance comparison is made with that of on–off keying (OOK) and pulse position modulation (PPM). For comparison, relevant expressions for both OOK and PPM are also presented. Using a threshold-detector-based receiver, we show that DPIM outperforms both OOK and PPM in terms of power efficiency and PPM in terms of bandwidth efficiency, by taking advantage of its inherent variable symbol duration. However, using a maximum-a posteriori (MAP) detector it provides marginally inferior error rate performance compared with PPM.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)519-536
JournalInternational Journal of Communication Systems
Issue number7-8
Publication statusPublished - 2000


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