We investigated the formation of photovoltaic (PV) devices using direct n-Si/MAPI (methylammonium lead tri-iodide) two-sided heterojunctions for the first time (as a possible alternative to two-terminal tandem devices) in which charge might be generated and collected from both the Si and MAPI. Test structures were used to establish that the n-Si/MAPI junction was photoactive and that spiro-OMeTAD acted as a “pinhole blocking” layer in n-Si/MAPI devices. Two-terminal “substrate” geometry devices comprising Al/n-Si/MAPI/spiro-OMeTAD/Au were fabricated and the effects of changing the thickness of the semitransparent gold electrode and the silicon resistivity were investigated. External quantum efficiency and capacitance–voltage measurements determined that the junction was one-sided in the silicon—and that the majority of the photocurrent was generated in the silicon, with there being a sharp cutoff in photoresponse above the MAPI bandgap. Construction of band diagrams indicated the presence of an upward valence band spike of up to 0.5 eV at the n-Si/MAPI interface that could impede carrier flow. Evidence for hole accumulation at this feature was seen in both Kelvin-probe transients and from unusual features in both current–voltage and capacitance–voltage measurements. The devices achieved a hysteresis-free best power conversion efficiency of 2.08%, V OC 0.46 V, J SC 11.77 mA/cm2, and FF 38.4%, demonstrating for the first time that it is possible to create a heterojunction PV device directly between the MAPI and n-Si. Further prospects for two-sided n-Si/MAPI heterojunctions are also discussed.
|Journal||IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics|
|Early online date||20 Apr 2020|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jul 2020|