Does waste equal food? Examining the feasibility of circular economy in the food industry

Helen Kopnina, Francesco Boatta, Mariusz Baranowski, Floris De graad

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The main objective of the chapter is to explore the closed-loop systems and circular economy in the context of the food production and sustainability perspective. The sections in this chapter engage with Cradle to Cradle or
C2C principles and the 9-R strategy for the circular economy but also discuss
the danger of subversion. Consequently, we turn to Lindeman’s (1942) rule and
Moerman’s ladder. Lindeman’s rule states that there is only a 10% transmission
of energy from one trophic level to the next. Moerman’s ladder indicates how
much value can still be extracted from food that is lost. Following that, we discuss alternatives, such as vegan diets, meat substitutes, lab-grown meat, and, in
particular, insects. The chapter centers on the question: is circularity in food
production possible?
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Impossibilities of the Circular Economy
Subtitle of host publicationSeparating Aspirations from Reality
EditorsHarry Lehmann, Christoph Hinske, Victoire de Margerie, Aneta Slaveikova Nikolova
Place of PublicationNew York, London
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781003244196
Publication statusPublished - 4 Nov 2022

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